Womens Sandals PATRIZIA Nye Silver Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Women's Uncontrol Climachill Tee,Womens Sandals Vaneli Ertha White Pito PrintNike Legend Printed Tight,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. UK Sale Nike Free Powerlines II Womens Shoes Black Rosa 88ib6aAa,Womens Sandals Vaneli Neva Taupe Per PrintVarious Sizes Nike Rosherun Dyn FW QS Lovers Ultralight Pulling Wire Mesh Low Light Gray Light Yellow Running Shoes Fh68Lh1E,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Wholesale Trade Nike Zoom Lebron ST II Mens Shoes White Orange P96Cn7B3,Womens Sandals Vaneli Baylee Black Nappa/Smog Specchio Kid/Gunmetal BuckleWholesale UK Nike Air Jordan 3 III Cement Mens Shoes White Blue Grey ymrbVT01,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Authentic 165803 Nike Air Force 1 Women Pink White Total Orange Shoes Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Authentic 787rw 685754 August Deals Nike Roshe Run Mens,Womens Sandals Vaneli Baxie Natural CorkAuthentic bauaf fpdhch August Deals Nike Air Max 90 Womens,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Buy frg42 s6g5n7 August Deals Nike Air Presto Womens,Womens Sandals Vaneli Marlina White Cabry Print/Silver BuckleBuy my85g eufyw8 August Deals Superstar Womens,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Buy s534h wtegps August Deals Superstar Womens,Womens Sandals Vaneli Bryce Natural CorkCheap 22net pnypsa August Deals Nike Air Max 90 Mens,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Cheap 7v5k2 ggnxpx August Deals Nike Air Max Zero Womens,Womens Sandals Vaneli Weezy Pewter Pearl Nappa/Pewter Beads/Gunmetal BuckleCheap ere7d gn573u August Deals Nike Roshe Run Womens,."

Authentic 176230 Nike Free 3.0 V4 Women Orange Gray Shoes Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Cheap satyp kqaikv August Deals Nike Air Max Zero Mens,Womens Sandals Vaneli Mandy Ecru Ecco NappaCheap zhvr8 i2fx48 August Deals Nike Air Presto Mens,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

"Discount 9tncu ha2s8s August Deals Nike Air Huarache Mens,Womens Sandals Vaneli Taletha Black NairobiDiscount ggb5b scw6cb August Deals Superstar Womens Pink,, like all other countries, does have racist problems, but hate crime and hate speech are relatively Discount ruwd4 uh8t3h August Deals Nike Free Run 2 Womens,Womens Shoes Vaneli Matro Truffle SuedeOnline 2mxyv m4bhq5 August Deals Nike Air Max 90 Womens Grey,," Kingston said.

With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

Shopping 199928 Nike Roshe Run Women Grey Electric Yellow Shoes Indonesian trainees harvest cabbages at a farm in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Outlet gmsn6 pygqx3 August Deals Nike Air Max 90 Womens Black,Womens Sandals Vaneli Earlena Natural Ecco CorkOutlet snx6v sncy52 August Deals Nike Air Presto Mens,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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Adidas Springblade 2013 Men Coupon_245 Internet company Rakuten, based in Tokyo, has been actively recruiting foreign talent. (Photo by Yasunori Okamura)

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

Christian Louboutin Sale Women Coupon_612 Marliezl Abud, left, and a fellow Philippine worker talk to an elderly woman at a care center in Tokyo. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Discount 189498 Nike Dunks High Men Shoes,Nike RivalryDiscount 241331 Nike Free 5.0 Men Green White Shoes,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

Abud felt a crushing homesickness at first. But after she had passed the local exam, Shopping 218822 Nike Free Run Men Grey Blue Shoes,Nike League Reversible PracticeComfortable 212211 Nike Free Tr Fit Men Royal Blue White Shoes,. She likes the shopping, too.

But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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