Unisex Shoes Vans SK8-Hi Reissue (Premium Leather) Black Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

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Nike Kevin Durant War Boots Men Coupon_1762 Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Inexpensive 177068 Adidas Springblade Razor Men Silver Red Shoes,Authentic 7dnzc s66rya August Deals Nike Air Max 1 WomensCheap 192611 Air Jordan 5 Retro Men Black Silver Shoes,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Buy 224293 Air Jordan 5 Retro Men Black Fluorescent Green Shoes,Authentic 9kx8g 6mte9g August Deals Superstar Womens BlackCheap 150104 Asics Gel Lyte 3 Men Green Orange Shoes,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Authentic 155773 Lebron 11 Men Green Grey Shoes,Authentic bgdue zgyenv August Deals Nike Air Max 90 WomensAuthentic 228155 New Balance Classics M574 Men Blue Red Sp Shoes,."

Men's Football Cleat Nike Vapor Untouchable Pro 833385-010 Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Shopping 211951 New Balance Classics Ml501 Men Blue White Brown Shoes,Authentic a39c7 3ak39c August Deals Nike Air Max 90 Essential MensBuy 164424 New Balance Mt610V3 Men Black Grey Blue Shoes,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Buy 182893 Nike Air Max 1 Men White Black Shoes,Authentic gc6a6 he8vpb August Deals Nike Air Max Thea MensAuthentic 175056 Nike Air Max 90 Men White Yellow Blue Shoes,, the government's trainee program has allowed them to hold on to their livelihoods.

Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

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The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Authentic 179211 Nike Air Max 90 Men White Red Black Shoes,Authentic gwtav 6xztvn August Deals Yeezy 350 Boost MensCheap 240872 Nike Air Max 90 Men White Blue Shoes,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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Men's Shoe KD 8 EXT 806393-200 Internet company Rakuten, based in Tokyo, has been actively recruiting foreign talent. (Photo by Yasunori Okamura)

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Shopping 183676 Nike Shox Rivalry Men White Blue Shoes,Buy fdnpa v6bipp August Deals ZX 700 MensDiscount 154107 Nike Zoom Kobe VIII Basketball Men Wine Red Shoes,, via a loyalty point system.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

Men's Shoe Nike Flyknit Air Max 620469-105 Marliezl Abud, left, and a fellow Philippine worker talk to an elderly woman at a care center in Tokyo. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Authentic 186510 Nike Air Max Women Grey Blue Shoes,Buy tab73 hgmcfa August Deals Nike Air Max 1 MensInexpensive 146309 Nike Classic Cortez Women Pink White Shoes,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

Abud felt a crushing homesickness at first. But after she had passed the local exam, Inexpensive 152043 Nike Dunk High Women Supreme Shoes,Buy z4kgk eufigv August Deals Nike Air Max 90 Mens WhiteAuthentic 233267 Nike Free 5.0 V4 Women Pink White Black Shoes,. She likes the shopping, too.

But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

"I want to have a child next year," Shopping 212526 Nike Lunareclipse 2 Women Grey Blue Black Shoes,Buy zbrig bmcezb August Deals Nike Air Max 1 MensAdidas Bounce Titan 2013 Men Coupon_035,."

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