They sold very well Air Jordan 11 Retro Low Navy 95HJ244 for Men Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Women's Adidas NMD R2 Running Shoes Pink/White,Vogue Air Jordan 8 Air Jordan Aqua 8(2015 release) 18657455 for Men,Women's Adidas Originals ZX 700 Shoes Violet/Running White Q20697,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Women's New Balance 574 Island Pack Running Shoes Teal/Peach/Navy WL574IBL,Weave Lacoste L.30 Slide Sport Spm Style : 7-31spm2169 82699455 for Men,Women's New Balance WL574 Retro Shoes Orange/Grey/Black,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Women's Nike Air Max 2011 Netty Breathable Running Shoes Purple White Gray,Wholesale Adidas Tubular Runner 96YL347 for Men,Women-ASICS Tiger Gel-Lyte III Sports Shoes Soft Grey/Dark Grey,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Men's Nike Kyrie 3 Basketball Shoes Team Red/Total Crimson-White-Pink Blast 859466-681 Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, New Balance Womens W530 Print Trainer,Air Force 1 Mid Legion Green,100% Genuine Nike Wmns Air Pegasus 89 Tech SI Running 881180-001 Grey Black Orange KN78340 for Women,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Attractive Asics NEW GEL-KAYANO 23 RUNNING TRAINERS COCKATOO SAFETY Yellow 62551011 for Women,Air Jordan 13 Olive,Best-selling Nike HUARACHE RUN PREMIUM SZ 5.5 BONE PAISLEY PACK 683818 010 Black Light QD49144 for Women,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Charms Nike Wmns Roshe One Flyknit Running Trainers 704927-304 Green Blue White 52873936 for Women,Authentic Air Jordan 11 Low Concord GS shoes,Competitive Price Vans Sk8 Hi Slim (Rainbow Floral) True Casual SIZE 7 Black White SJ79190 for Women,."

Men's Nike Vapormax Flyknit Running Shoes Black/White 849558-001 Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Top Brands New Balance { 574 [5.5-10] Grey Silver dark 79KX-6891 for Women,Authentic Air Jordan 7 N7,With good start Nike AIR MAX 1 ESSENTIAL SNEAKERS BONE BRIGADE SAIL 599820 019 Blue Light 87FH-9663 for Women,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

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The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Discounts Olympia Le-Tan Multicolor Dry Clutch For Women On Sale,Mens Trainers White/Silver/Black/Red,Dolce & Gabbana Embellished Lace Flat Sandals For Women Online Sale,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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Men-Timberland Bluffton Slip On Slip-Ons Brown Internet company Rakuten, based in Tokyo, has been actively recruiting foreign talent. (Photo by Yasunori Okamura)

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Django Juliette Womens Shoes Beige,Saucony Mens Shoes Fashion,Kelme Womens Casual Sneakers Black,, via a loyalty point system.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

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One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. 705329-001 Air Jordan 1 Low OG "BRED" Shoes Black/Red,Design Adidas D Rose 5 Boost Og - Chalk White / Core Black / Clear Brown Footwear,Kid's Nike KD 8 "Young Tigers" Basketball Shoes Hyper Cobalt/Deep Royal Blue/Volt 768867-400,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

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But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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