Nike Air Max 95 Mens Carbon Green/Militia Green/Hyper Orange/Black Running Shoes V43300 Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Nike Stefan Janoski Max Trainer CP4615,Duck & Cover Tinnu Regular Slim Jean CP840Nike Free Socfly Trainer CP4699,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Nike Elite Shinsen Trainer CP4761,Carhartt Klondike Jean CP832Nike Roshe NM Flyknit Premium Trainer CP4815,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Puma R698 Core Leather Trainer CP4902,Hype Skinny Jean CP860Ransom Field Lite Trainer CP4966,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Womens Slippers UGG Dreams Silver Hearts Suede Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Vans Authentic Trainer CP5058,Jack & Jones Erik Original SC151 Jean CP883Vans Old Skool Trainer CP5104,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Womens Shoes adidas Running Kanadia TR 7 Night Flash/Black/Light Flash Purple,Jack & Jones Glen Branco SC431 Denim Jean CP890Womens Boots Aerosoles In An Instint Black,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Womens Sandals Aerosoles Eyesight Black Elastic,Waven Erling Skinny Jean CP914Womens Sandals Aerosoles World Traveler Natural Fabric,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Womens Shoes Aerosoles Nuwlywed Dark Red Combo,Alphalab Systemic Velour Full Zip Hooded Top CP957Womens Boots ALDO Keira Black Leather,."

Womens Sandals Vaneli Mandy Ecru Ecco Nappa Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Womens Boots ALDO Ocoinia Cognac,Antony Morato Script Overhead Hooded Top CP963Womens Shoes ALDO Drini Black Leather,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

Womens Shoes Badgley Mischka Pearla White Satin,Creative Recreation Baltimore Poly Hooded Top CP1023Womens Shoes Badgley Mischka Roanna II Platino Metallic Suede,, and 60% are 65 or older. Most of their children have left for the city in search of better-paying office work.

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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

Womens Shoes Vaneli Darcy Fango Suede/Matching Elastic Indonesian trainees harvest cabbages at a farm in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Womens Sandals Calvin Klein Jiselle Navy Patent,EA7 7 Lines Full Zip Hooded Top CP1042Womens Shoes Calvin Klein Gradyn Black Cow Silk,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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Hurley Phantom Block Party Heather Internet company Rakuten, based in Tokyo, has been actively recruiting foreign talent. (Photo by Yasunori Okamura)

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

Rakuten's push for global talent began in 2009, Womens Shoes Cole Haan Amalia WV Sling Skim Black/Ivory,Brave Soul Borwell Premium Bomber Jacket CP1278Womens Shoes Cole Haan Catalina Wedge Blazer Blue Patent,.

Nike NG-ENMY Raglan Foreign students attend a job fair in Tokyo. Japanese companies, including e-commerce player Rakuten, are increasingly looking for international talent. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

Mikitani's revelation came during a lunch session with Indian engineers. Womens Boots ECCO Sculptured 75 Ankle Boot Green Gables,Creative Recreation Davies Drop Needle Bomber Jacket CP1325Womens Sandals ECCO Touch Ankle Strap Sandal Moon Rock/Moon Rock,.

Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Womens Shoes ECCO Touch 15 Scale Ballerina Marine/Navy/Marine,Gensen Harrington Jacket CP1384Womens Shoes ECCO Sport Arizona Tie Morillo/Petal Trim,, via a loyalty point system.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

Running NightCat Jacket Marliezl Abud, left, and a fellow Philippine worker talk to an elderly woman at a care center in Tokyo. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

Among those whose skills are in great demand is Marliezl Abud, Womens Boots Naturalizer Tipley Black Leather,Jack & Jones Premium Dave Driver Mac Jacket CP1427Womens Sandals Naturalizer Every Black Leather,, Care Port Itabashi.  

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Womens Shoes New Balance WX822v2 - Fresh Foam Pink/Pink,Pretty Green Festival Jacket CP1501Womens Shoes Nike Lunar Glide Flash Black/Reflective Silver/Cool Grey/Wolf Grey,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

Abud felt a crushing homesickness at first. But after she had passed the local exam, Womens Shoes Nike Zoom Cage 2 Light Aqua/White/Classic Charcoal/Volt,The North Face La Paz Hooded Jacket CP1529Womens Shoes Nike Lunar Lux TR Court Purple/Vivd Purple/Volt/White,. She likes the shopping, too.

But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

"I want to have a child next year," Womens Boots PATRIZIA Quill Camel,Ellesse Zoff Crew Neck Cable Knit Jumper CP1796Womens Sandals PATRIZIA Majes Beige,."

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