New Balance 996 Men Coupon_1316 Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Men's Nike Metcon 1 Cargo Khaki/Green Strike/White UK#N5-9557,Nike Kevin Durant Men Coupon_1745,Women's Nike Mercurial Vortex II FG Blue Tint/Racer Blue/Hyper Turquoise/Bright Mango UK#N5-9560,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Adidas Cosmic Boost Womens Green Earth/White/Frozen Yellow Running Shoes V56356,Nike Derrick Rose Men Coupon_1622,Mr Lacy Junior Flat Lace CP364,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Vans Infant Old Skool Trainer CP548,Nike Kobe Bryant Men Coupon_1842,Nike Junior Air Force 1 Mid Trainer CP622,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Nike Pro Hyperstrong 3.0 Compression 4-Pad Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Nike Nursery Roshe Run Trainer CP787,Men's Baseball Cleat Jordan 4 Retro Metal 807710-110,Akai Kuma Nagayoshi Overhead Hooded Top CP954,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, The North Face 1985 Mountain Fly Jacket CP1521,Men's Football Training Shoe Nike Field General 2 (California) 749310-002,Brave Soul MST Palm Beach Cargo Short CP2088,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Under Armour Mirage Woven Short CP2217,Men's Lacrosse Clea Nike Vapor Speed 684837-140,EA7 Train Core Track Suit CP3593,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Timberland 6 Inch Premium Jacquard Boot CP3772,Men's Nike Basketball ShoeKD 8 749375-013,adidas Originals Adizero Adios Boost Trainer CP3957,."

Men's White Mountaineering Tee Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.adidas Originals Climacool Fresh 2.0 Trainer CP4053,Men's Nike Roshe LD-1000 802022-001,Asics Gel Saga Trainer CP4210,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

Women’s Wave Mini Shorts 2 Pack Indonesian trainees harvest cabbages at a farm in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Unisex Shoes adidas by Juun. J Perf Leather ZX8000 Low JJ FTWR White/FTWR White/FTWR White,Men's Shoe Jordan Galaxy 820255-100,Womens Boots Aerosoles Taekwondo Grey,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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Nike Color Surge Crossback Sport Bra A Vietnamese worker checks autoparts at a Shigeru plant in Gunma Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobyashi)

The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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Men's Linear 3-Stripes Tee Internet company Rakuten, based in Tokyo, has been actively recruiting foreign talent. (Photo by Yasunori Okamura)

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"It is impossible for Japanese to create a very competitive technology-based company unless we globalize internally,Womens Shoes Clarks Vailee Stone Grey,Men's Shoe Nike SB Zoom Dunk Low Pro 854866-019,Womens Boots COACH Adella Black Calf,, CEO of Japanese e-commerce company Rakuten, at an in-house seminar last year.

At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

Rakuten's push for global talent began in 2009, Womens Shoes COACH Amelia Cranberry Shearling,Men's Shoe NikeCourt Zoom Cage 2 705247-840,Womens Boots Cole Haan Evan Short Boot WP Camello,.

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Mikitani's revelation came during a lunch session with Indian engineers. Womens Sandals Cole Haan Jillian Wedge Black/White Dot Print,Men's Training Shoe Nike Free Trainer 5.0 V6 AMP (TCU) 723939-510,Womens Shoes Cole Haan Bowie Slipon Sneaker Black/Vanilla Snake Print,.

Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Womens Shoes Cole Haan Zerogrand Wing Oxford Argento Metallic,NIKE AIR FORCE 1 07 Black/Black,Womens Boots ECCO Adel Tall Zip Boot Mink,, via a loyalty point system.

"Rakuten is basically an e-commerce company, but we are moving into other businesses also. I wanted to work in the latest technologies," Womens Shoes ECCO Sculptured 75 Pump Black Old West,NIKE AIR MAX 95 White/Black/Black,Womens Sandals GUESS Shura White Synthetic,.

Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

Wholesale UK 2013 Nike Lebron X 10 Mens Sneakers Shoes New Red White 3Ijbyh0D Marliezl Abud, left, and a fellow Philippine worker talk to an elderly woman at a care center in Tokyo. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Womens Shoes New Balance Classics 315 - Cush+ Maroon,NIKE LUNARGLIDE 6 White/Pure Platinum/Cool Grey/Black,Womens Shoes Nike Free 5.0 Tr Fit 5 Breathe Lava Glow/Bright Crimson/Bright Citrus/White,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

Abud felt a crushing homesickness at first. But after she had passed the local exam, Womens Shoes Nike Zoom Fit Fuchsia Glow/Vivid Purple/White/Pure Platinum,NikeLab Gyakusou Zoom Streak 6 Unisex Racing Shoe 875850-400,Womens Sandals PATRIZIA Vaciller White,. She likes the shopping, too.

But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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