Men Victoria Victoria W Sport Shoes - Rubber - Black White - 2458792vl Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Nike Hyperdunk Low Supreme Houston Rockets Aaron Brooks PE,Unisex Adidas Spezial Light Grey Suede Shoes,Nike Jordan Super Fly 2 PO X Dark Concord Infrared,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Nike Kobe 8 VIII System Mambacurial Red Plum Green,Nike Air Jordan Retro 1 Mid Retro Basketball Shoes Men Grey/White/Grey,Nike LeBron 9 IX Cool Grey White Metallic Silver,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Nike Lunarfly+ Ink Black,Nike Jordan Cp3 9 Basketball Shoes Men Red/Navy,Nike Rosherun Roshe Run GPX Tiger Camo Pack Vintage Green Gamma Green,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Adidas Climacool Modulate Black Purple Womens Running Shoes Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Nike The Overplay 8 VIII Black Team Orange Blue (637382-002),Under Armour Curry One Low Basketball Shoes Men Black/Silver,Nike Zoom Kobe 5 V Lower Merion ACE (Away),, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Adidas Originals Swift Run Triple White/Black Knit Mens Running All NEW,Nike Elite Shinsen Casual Shoes Men Light/Green,adidas Originals Deerupt Runner Solar Red Bluebird Adryan Hanson Men Shoe CQ2624,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Adidas Campus Branch Footwear White Mens Suede Low-top Sneakers Trainers,Nike Tennis Classic Cs Casual Shoes Men White/Red,adidas EQT Support ADV Mens Sneakers Black CP8928,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Adidas Climacool 1 Tech Men 's Shoes Sneaker Shoes Trainers Sport Shoes,Puma Carson Runner Engineered Mesh Casual Shoes Men Yellow/Blue,Men 's adidas Tubular Shadow Casual Shoes Core Black/Core Black BY4392 BLK,."

Womens & Mens Adidas Top Ten Mid Black Blue Leather Shoes Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.1708 adidas Cosmic 2 Men 's Training Running Shoes BB3583,Nike Air Jordan Deluxe Off Court Shoes Men Black/Red/Dark Grey,Adidas Country OG men 's low-top sneakers blue or black casual shoes NEW,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

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The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Adidas Originals Forum Hi OG Shoes Running White Ftw / Running White J58p13,Nike Tri Fusion Run Running Shoes Men White/Black/Grey,Adidas Originals Superstar Shoes Vivid Red / Vivid Red / Vivid Red Y1y25,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Nike Free Trainer 3.0 V3 Women's Shoe Pink/Purplish Red No.2300,Nike "With Us" (NFL Patriots) 749543-419 College Navy,Women Air Foamposite Pro White Black Mint,, via a loyalty point system.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

Nike Womens Flyknit Zoom Agility Volt White Green Glow Marliezl Abud, left, and a fellow Philippine worker talk to an elderly woman at a care center in Tokyo. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Women Crocs Crocs Edie Stretch Sandal W Mules Clogs - Synthetics - Platinium Pearl Pink - 2021847fv,Nike College Fly (Washington State) 00030416X-WC1 University Red,Women El Naturalista Viajero N267 W Lace-up Shoes - Rubber - Black Pull Grain - 2843789bl,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

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But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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