MEN'S NIKE AIR ZOOM ELITE 8 748588-100 Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Asylum Gripper Short CP2290,Men's Shoe Nike Dual Fusion Ballistec Advantage 685278-441,Franklin & Marshall Arch Logo Suit CP3607,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Calvin Klein Flip Flop CP3826,Men's Football Cleat Nike Vapor Untouchable 698833-006,Original Penguin Flava Suede Shoe CP3930,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. adidas Originals Gazelle OG Trainer CP4065,Men's Shoe Nike Lunar Fingertrap TR 898066-100,Asics Gel-Lyte III 'Carnival Pack' Trainer CP4209,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

UK Sale Adidas Originals Navvy Martin Boots Shoes Men Dark Blue jIhqneoA Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Creative Recreation Cesario Low XVI Linear Sport Trainer CP4356,Men's Shoe Nike Roshe One 511881-010,Cruyff Puente CFI Trainer CP4422,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Vans SK8-Hi Trainer CP5086,Men's Training Shoe Nike Metcon 1 704688-313,adidas Originals Womens Superstar Up Trainer CP5260,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Womens Shoes adidas Galactic Elite White/Midnight Grey/Iron Metallic,Men,Womens Boots Aerosoles Easy Rider Brown,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Womens Sandals Aerosoles Guava Plush Black,NIKE AIR MAX 95 Black/Poison Green/Dark Grey/Silver,Womens Shoes Aerosoles Gondola Dark Brown Combo,."

Discount 3uwxs 7mis5y August Deals Nike Air Max 90 Womens Black Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Womens Boots ALDO Nicole Black Leather,Nike Dunk High Premium SB Unisex Shoe (Men's Sizing) 313171-441,Womens Boots Anne Klein AKStrahan Black Leather,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

Womens Boots Calvin Klein Collena Black Leather,NIKE ROSHE RUN PRINT Villain Red/Team Red/Light Mulberry/Black,Womens Shoes Calvin Klein Nathali Warm Gold/Black Metallic,, and 60% are 65 or older. Most of their children have left for the city in search of better-paying office work.

Womens Shoes Calvin Klein Allie Cigar Brown,Women's Nike Roshe Run,Womens Boots CARLOS by Carlos Santana Hagen Black,, the government's trainee program has allowed them to hold on to their livelihoods.

Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

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The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Womens Boots Clarks Malia Hawthorn Black Leather,Women's Shoe Nike Air Max 1 Ultra Essentials 704993-007,Womens Sandals Clarks Brinkley Arney Greystone Synthetic,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Womens Shoes PUMA 76 Runner Fun Peacoat/Peacoat,Adidas Element Refine Mens University Red/Light Maroon/Solar Blue Running Shoes V82531,Womens Shoes Reebok Work N Cushion KC 2.0 Black/Black,, via a loyalty point system.

"Rakuten is basically an e-commerce company, but we are moving into other businesses also. I wanted to work in the latest technologies," Womens Shoes Rocket Dog Tadley Grey Trails,Adidas Pure Boost Mens Rich Red/Black/Clear Grey/Snake Print Running Shoes V72577,Womens Sandals Sam Edelman Korinne Classic Nude,.

Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

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One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

Among those whose skills are in great demand is Marliezl Abud, Womens Shoes Sam Edelman Riley New Nude Leopard,Adidas X 15.3 Fg/Ag Mens Black/Solar Yellow/Night Metallic Soccer Shoes V28547,Womens Shoes Sam Edelman Felicia Sangria Silk Velvet,, Care Port Itabashi.  

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Womens Boots UGG Classic Short Woven Suede Charcoal Suede,Nike Air Max Tavas Mens Midnight Navy/Dark Obsidian/White/Neutral Grey Running Shoes V65070,Womens Boots Under Armour UA Fat Tire GTX Graphite/Aluminum/Emerald Sari,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

Abud felt a crushing homesickness at first. But after she had passed the local exam, Womens Sandals Vaneli Bryce Black Nappa Leather,Nike Cortez Mens White/Varsity Red Running Shoes V94815,Womens Shoes Vaneli Sunny T.Moro Nival Suede/Mtch Elastic,. She likes the shopping, too.

But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

"I want to have a child next year," Womens Shoes Vaneli Laval Black Pesca Fabric,Nike Lunarestoa 2 Mens Black/Kumquat/Sail Running Shoes V21104,Women's Studio Zebra Three-Quarter Tights,."

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