H By Hudson Houghton Desert Boot CP3745 Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Womens Shoes GUESS Anny Black Leather,adidas Originals Topanga Trainer CP4179,Womens Boots Hunter Original Back Adjustable Short Sunset/Tent Red,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Womens Boots Naturalizer Allison Black Leather/Suede,Converse Chuck Taylor All Star High Trainer CP4261,Womens Shoes Naturalizer Mozart Black Leather,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Womens Shoes Naturalizer Freeda Spot Animal Print/Black Leather,adidas Originals ZX Flux Techfit Trainer CP4087,Womens Shoes New Balance WT910v2 Purple/Orange,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Cheap 158568 Nike Zoom Kobe IV Men Black Blue Yellow Green Shoes Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Womens Shoes New Balance W490V3 Cyclone,Creative Recreation Cesario Low XVI Trainer CP4369,Womens Shoes Nike Air Max Muse White/Metallic Platinum,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Womens Shoes PUMA Tazon 6 Black/Puma Silver/Beetroot Purple,Nike Air Max 90 Leather Trainer CP4601,Womens Shoes Reebok Hexaffect Run 2.0 MT Batik Blue/California Blue/Sheer Blue/Cool Breeze/Neon Cher,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Womens Boots Rocket Dog Otis Black Blankie,Nike Kobe X Trainer CP4677,Womens Slippers Rocket Dog Barstow Black Icemaker,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Womens Sandals Sam Edelman Ruth Black/Ivory,Nike Kobe X 'USA' Trainer CP4752,Womens Shoes Sam Edelman Dea Purple Rain,."

Inexpensive 158587 Adidas Originals ZX 700 Women Black White Sunshine Shoes Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Womens Shoes Saucony Ride 8 Deepwater/Violet/Slime,Nike Roshe One Print Trainer CP4818,Womens Shoes Superga 2750 Boucle Pink Multi,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

"Womens Shoes Timberland Earthkeepers Ellsworth Ballerina Navy Full Grain,Nike Air Huarache Light Premium Trainer CP4874,Womens Boots UGG Rosen Black Leather,, like all other countries, does have racist problems, but hate crime and hate speech are relatively Womens Boots UGG Classic Mini Serape Cream Twinface,Ransom Field Lite Trainer CP4971,Womens Slippers UGG Ansley Chunky Crystals Burgundy Suede,," Kingston said.

With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Womens Shoes Vaneli Binge Black Mag Patent,Dr. Martens Womens 1460 8-Eye Boot CP5142,Womens Shoes Vaneli Adella Grey E-Print/Matching Elastic,, the government's trainee program has allowed them to hold on to their livelihoods.

Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

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The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Unisex Shoes Vans SK8-Hi Slim (Patent Galaxy) Black/True White,Flossy Womens Plimsole CP5197,Hurley Phantom Clark Little,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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Discount 153578 Nike Free Run Women Grey Yellow Shoes Internet company Rakuten, based in Tokyo, has been actively recruiting foreign talent. (Photo by Yasunori Okamura)

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Buy 221125 Nike Zoom Kobe VI Women China Metallic Grey Shoes Foreign students attend a job fair in Tokyo. Japanese companies, including e-commerce player Rakuten, are increasingly looking for international talent. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Outlet 5qfib i39ctx August Deals NMD Womens,Womens Shoes Anne Klein Petrica Light Pink Leather,Outlet nnbqi w44hqt August Deals Nike Air Max 90 Womens Orange,, via a loyalty point system.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

Adidas Porsche Design S3 Men Coupon_193 Marliezl Abud, left, and a fellow Philippine worker talk to an elderly woman at a care center in Tokyo. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Authentic 155773 Lebron 11 Men Green Grey Shoes,Womens Boots C Label Liberty-16 Wine,Shopping 204447 New Balance M890V4 Men Blue Green Shoes,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

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But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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