Comfortable 234931 Air Jordan 1 Retro Men White Red Shoes Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Comfortable 177946 Puma Suede Classic Eco Men Brown Shoes,Buy 149474 Nike Dunk High Men Catfish ShoesAuthentic 212520 Air Jordan 11 Retro Unisex White Pink Shoes,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Shopping 206683 New Balance Classics U420 Unisex Black Shoes,Comfortable 199659 Nike Dream Season Kobe Bryant Men White Black Purple ShoesCheap 180600 Air Jordan 3 Retro Unisex Dark Powder Blue/Black Grey White Shoes,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Authentic 207077 Adidas Springblade Razor Women Red Black Shoes,Inexpensive 169078 Nike Dunk High Men Black Grey ShoesBuy 195048 Air Jordan 6 Women White Pink Bright Grape Black Shoes,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Women's Nike Dual Fusion TR 2 Print Hyper Cobalt/Marlin/Chambray/Bright Mango UK#N5-9529 Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Inexpensive 180551 New Balance Classics W574 Women Blue Light Blue Shoes,Inexpensive 181474 Nike Dunk High Men White Red ShoesAuthentic 167051 New Balance W840V2 Women Silver Violet Shoes,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Discount 235796 Nike Classic Cortez Nylon Women Blue Orange Shoes,Buy 229197 Nike Dunk High Men ShoesInexpensive 190437 Nike Dunk Low Women Metallic Summit White Blue Shoes,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Cheap 197292 Nike Free 3.0 V4 Women Purple Ray Shoes,Comfortable 161852 Nike Dunk High Men Violet ShoesInexpensive 155278 Nike Free Run 2 Women Grey Purple White Shoes,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Discount 226803 Nike Lunareclipse 2 Women Blue Green Black Shoes,Discount 215807 Nike Dunk High Men ShoesComfortable 224574 Nike Roshe Run Women Green Shoes,."

Havaianas Infant Brasil Logo Flip Flop CP521 Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Adidas Bounce Titan VI Men Coupon_079,Discount 236894 Nike Dunk High Men Red Black Silver ShoesAdidas Originals JS Men Coupon_116,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

"Adidas Porsche Design VI Men Coupon_212,Inexpensive 192391 Nike Dunk High Men Light Blue ShoesAdidas Bounce Titan V Women Coupon_298,, like all other countries, does have racist problems, but hate crime and hate speech are relatively Asics Running Shoes Women Coupon_400,Inexpensive 151358 Nike Dunk High Men Maize ShoesChristian Louboutin Sale Women Coupon_499,," Kingston said.

With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

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The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Jimmy Choo Wedges Women Coupon_961,Cheap 195231 Nike Dunk High Men ShoesNew Balance Men Coupon_1030,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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adidas Originals Shell Toe Windbreaker CP1198 Internet company Rakuten, based in Tokyo, has been actively recruiting foreign talent. (Photo by Yasunori Okamura)

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Men's Shoe Nike Zoom Clear Out 844370-001,Inexpensive 213080 Nike Free 7.0 V2 Men Grey Black White ShoesMen's Training Shoe Nike Lunar Caldra 803879-417,, via a loyalty point system.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

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One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Women's Shoe Nike LunarEpic Flyknit 818677-403,Cheap 212921 Nike Free Tr Fit Men Black Gray White ShoesNike Roshe One Boys Toddler Wolf Grey/Univ Gold/Electro Orange/Deep Royal Blue Running Shoes V99017,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

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But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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