Comfortable 213881 Nike Shox R2 Men White Shoes Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Women's Shoe Nike Air Zoom Pegasus 33 Shield 849567-500,Shopping 221687 Nike Zoom Hyperdunk Men Grey Green Abyss Current Blue Shoes,Women's Shoe Nike Roshe Two Flyknit 844929-003,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Nike Air Max 90 Boys Preschool Wolf Grey/Dark Purple Dust/White/Total Crimson Running Shoes V97920,Comfortable 183190 Nike Zoom Kobe VIII Basketball Men Black Yellow Grey Shoes,Adidas D Rose Lakeshore Boys Grade School White/Light Scarlet/Light Onix Basketball Shoes V92249,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Nike Free 5.0 2015 Boys Grade School Game Royal/Neo Turquoise/Light Retro/Black Running Shoes V55021,Comfortable 146398 Onitsuka Tiger By Asics Mexico 66 Men Birch-Indian Ink-Latte Shoes,Adidas Crazy 8 Mens Red Sld/Black Basketball Shoes V72332,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Womens Boots UGG Bailey Button Mirage Sterling Twinface Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Adidas J Wall Mens Navy/Red/Light Onix Basketball Shoes V65616,Authentic 226999 Onitsuka Tiger By Asics Mexico 66 Men White Blue Shoes,Adidas Springblade Razor Mens Black/Solar Blue Running Shoes V27349,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Adidas Ultra Boost Womens Sun Glow/Solid Grey/Purple Glow Running Shoes V79681,Cheap 178386 Nike Roshe Run Unisex Dark Blue White Electric Yellow Shoes,Nike Air Max Dynasty Womens Pink Blast/Black/White Running Shoes V68535,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Nike Air Zoom Pegasus 32 Womens Hyper Orange/Volt/Optic Yellow/Black Running Shoes V59028,Comfortable 210572 Air Jordan 10 Women White Verde Black Shoes,Nike Free 5.0 2015 Womens Violet Ash/White/Hyper Orange/Black Running Shoes V84341,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Men's Nike Toki Textile - Low Dark Grey/Gum Medium Brown/Wolf Grey UK#N5-9410,Discount 228188 Asics Gelnoosa Tri 8 Women Pink Purple Shoes,Men's Nike SB Portmore Anthracite/Black/Cyber UK#N5-9324,."

Womens Sandals Vaneli Elyta Natural Cork/Gold Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Women's Nike Air Max Muse Leather White/Wolf Grey/Metallic Silver UK#N5-9468,Shopping 165595 New Balance Classics Wl574 Women Navy Shoes,Mr Lacy Smallies Laces CP360,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

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The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, adidas Originals Palm Tree Swim Short CP2282,Shopping 227720 Nike Dunk High Women Shoes,Timberland Euro Sprint Tree Boot CP3755,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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Evolution Top A Vietnamese worker checks autoparts at a Shigeru plant in Gunma Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobyashi)

The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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Women’s Mesh Hoodie Internet company Rakuten, based in Tokyo, has been actively recruiting foreign talent. (Photo by Yasunori Okamura)

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Women's Running Track Top Foreign students attend a job fair in Tokyo. Japanese companies, including e-commerce player Rakuten, are increasingly looking for international talent. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Womens Boots Clarks Tamryn Season Black Leather,Giuseppe Zanotti Sale Women Coupon_661,Womens Sandals Clarks Brinkley Arney Black Synthetic,, via a loyalty point system.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

KD Lightning Three-Piece Marliezl Abud, left, and a fellow Philippine worker talk to an elderly woman at a care center in Tokyo. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Womens Shoes Cole Haan Lena Mid Pump II Maple Sugar,New Balance Men Coupon_1063,Womens Boots ECCO Adel Ankle Boot Black,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

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But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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