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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.
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The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Women's Shoe Nike Free RN Flyknit 831070-800,Nike Kevin Durant Men Coupon_1749Women's Shoe Nike Free Transform Flyknit 833410-300,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.
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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Nike Flex Fury 2 Boys Grade School Grey/Black Running Shoes V56632,Nike Kevin Durant War Boots Men Coupon_1778Nike Free 5.0 2015 Girls Grade School Copa/Vivid Pink/White/Metallic Silver Running Shoes V48436,.
Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Nike Roshe One Girls Grade School Wolf Grey/Hyper Pink/Cool Grey/White Running Shoes V98675,Nike Kevin Durant War Boots Men Coupon_1786Adidas D Rose 6 Mens Scarlet/White/Scarlet Basketball Shoes V74265,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.
Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.
"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Adidas Isolation 2 Mid Mens Black/Silver/White Basketball Shoes V27228,Nike Kevin Durant Men Coupon_1730Adidas Energy Boost 3 Mens Mid Grey/Black/Blue Running Shoes V64113,."
While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Adidas Voloomix Mens Royal/White Slippers V73037,Nike Kobe Bryant Men Coupon_1827Adidas Barricade 2015 Mens Bright Yellow/Black/Solar Yellow Tennis Shoes V42666,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.
Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.
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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.
Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.
Cabbages and car parts
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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.
The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Nike Air Max 90 Womens Black/White/Metallic Silver Running Shoes V35277,Men's Basketball Shoe Jordan Ultra.Fly 834268-002Nike Flex Experience Run 4 Womens Black/Anthracite/White/Metallic Dark Grey Running Shoes V14050,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.
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The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."
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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.
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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.
Fast-track system for tech workers
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"It is impossible for Japanese to create a very competitive technology-based company unless we globalize internally,Brave Soul Brandish Wool Overcoat CP1273,Men's Golf Shoe Jordan Trainer ST 833359-110Good For Nothing Nylon Bomber Jacket CP1393,, CEO of Japanese e-commerce company Rakuten, at an in-house seminar last year.
At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.
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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.
"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. EA7 Visibility Poly Tracksuit CP3594,Men's Nike Basketball Shoe Kyrie 2 819583-680Timberland 6 Inch Premium Boot CP3769,, via a loyalty point system.
"Rakuten is basically an e-commerce company, but we are moving into other businesses also. I wanted to work in the latest technologies," Fred Perry Byron Mid Suede Shoe CP3913,Men's Nike Internationalist Mid Shoe 682844-401adidas Originals Campus 80's Japan Pack Vintage Trainer CP4055,.
But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.
One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training.
Among those whose skills are in great demand is Marliezl Abud, adidas Originals Tubular X Trainer CP4152,Men's Nike Shoe CJ3 Flyweave Trainer (Lions)725231-014Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Brea Leather Trainer CP4297,, Care Port Itabashi.
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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Nike Paul Rodriguez CTD Canvas Trainer CP4649,Men's Nike Shoe Jordan Flight Runner 2 715572-018Nike Flystepper 2K3 Trainer CP4746,.
She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.
Abud felt a crushing homesickness at first. But after she had passed the local exam, Nike Free Run 2 Trainer CP4873,Men's Running Shoe Nike Air Max 2017 849559-005Supra Noiz Trainer CP5038,. She likes the shopping, too.
But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.
"I want to have a child next year," Y3 Sprint Trainer CP5131,Men's Running Shoe Nike Air Zoom Odyssey 749338-607Womens Sandals adidas Voloomix Sleek LG Vivid Mint/Clear Grey/Solar Pink,."