Nike Shoes Online Shopping Zoom Lebron 9.5 Mens on Sale White Black Gold Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

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Nike Air Max 95 360 Men Running Shoes Black Purple Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Nike Lebron 12 Dunkman Online Men Lebron James 12 Shoes Lebron James Shoes Lebron James 12 Nike Lebron 12 Lebron James Shoes Awesome outlets Deals,Nike Mens Shoes / University Red Black University Red Shoes Nike Lil' Penny Posite RF61Y271cNike Lebron 12 Dunkman Men LeBron Shoes Nike Lebron James 13 12 Shoes Lebron James 12 4th Of July Fashion 2016 lebron sales 12 The Store 4th of,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Nike Kyrie 4 "CNY" Team Red White,Nike Mens Shoes / Total Crimson Metallic Silver White Shoes Nike Tiempo Legacy Leather Fg RS51U6031eNike Kyrie 1 EP Men Basketball Shoes Easter Purple Silver Hot Lava Black 705278 508,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Nike Kobe X All Star DS Black ASG Men Basketball Shoes 742548 097,Nike Mens Shoes / Tampa Bay Buccaneers Shoes Nike Alpha Pro Low Td HJ81Hjn11Nike Kobe A.D. Black/White Mens Basketball Performance Really Cool Sneakers Lifestyle Top Shoes,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Nike Kobe 11 Elite Top GCR Men Kobe 11 Elite Top Low 4KB Red Horse 824463 get 199 White Multi Color 4KB White Multicolor Nike Images Australia Nike Kobe 11 3D SneakerWhorez,Nike Mens Shoes / Space Blue Volt Shoes Nike Tiempo '94 Mid DD83T81Nike Kobe 11 Elite GCR Men Nike Kobe 8 Ext Black iMechanica First Look at Upcoming Nike Kobe XI Elite 4KB EU Kicks Best Deals Nike Kobe Venomenon 5 South Beach cheap,."

Nike Air Max 90 Premium EM 2014 Black White Sports Shoes - P13k9340 nike sports trainers Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Nike Kobe 11 Elite GCR Men kobe easter Kobe 8 Easter Store Kobe 8 BHM Kobe BHM on The Blacked Out Nike Kobe 11 EM Will Officially Release,Nike Mens Shoes / Seattle Seahawks Shoes Nike Vapor Carbon 2014 Elite Td EF138502e1jNike Kobe 10 X EP Low Moon Blue Black Men Basketball Shoes 745334,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

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The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Nike Hyperdunk 2016 Basketball Shoes Sneakers Trainers Dark Blue Red White 844359-446,Nike Mens Shoes / Neutral Grey Volt White Shoes Nike Lunargato Ii ET83Yj1dNike Huarache Free Run 5.0 Men Running Shoes,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Nike Factory Sale Mens Nike Air More Uptempo Black Black Volt Shoes Online,Nike Mens Shoes / Grey White Grey Boys Shoes Nike Shox Deliver FU56E33h1cNike Factory Sale Mens Air Jordan 18 (XVIII) Retro White Varsity Red Shoes Online,, via a loyalty point system.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

Nike Air Max 90 Hyperfuse Prm Men Running Shoes Green Black Marliezl Abud, left, and a fellow Philippine worker talk to an elderly woman at a care center in Tokyo. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Nike Est 2015 Air Jordan 11Lab4 Collection Men Basketball Shoes Black,Nike Mens Shoes / Cool Grey Wolf Grey White Dark Ash Shoes Nike Air Pegasus '89 RD54U32z1nNike Dunk Low QK Manu Unisex Black/University Blue-White,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

Abud felt a crushing homesickness at first. But after she had passed the local exam, Nike Deep Royal Blue Men Nike Hypercool Max 3 4 Tight High-Quality,Nike Mens Shoes / Cool Grey Black Anthracite Metallic Silver Shoes Nike Overplay Viii KS448881m1mNike Classic Gym Red White Cortez Nyloni LUP811063,. She likes the shopping, too.

But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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