Authentic 218819 Nike Air Max 90 Men Black Red Shoes Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Men's Shoe Air Jordan 2 Retro Low 832819-606,Authentic 193904 Nike Dunk High Men White Yellow Pink Shoes,Men's Shoe Kobe XI Elite Low 4KB 824463-199,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Men's Shoe Nike Air Max Excellerate 4 806770-101,Shopping 213893 Nike Dunk High Men Shoes,Men's Shoe Nike Free Hypervenom 2 747139-100,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Men's Shoe Nike Mayfly Premium 816548-003,Inexpensive 210728 Nike Dunk High Men Silver Purple Black White Shoes,Men's Shoe Nike Zoom All Out Low 878670-300,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Womens Boots Rocket Dog Otis Charcoal Shalet Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Men's Training Shoe Nike Metcon 2 819899-400,Cheap 195231 Nike Dunk High Men Shoes,NIKE AIR MAX 95 Black/Tour Yellow/Anthracite/Cool Grey,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Women's Shoe NikeCourt Zoom Vapor 9.5 Tour 631475-505,Comfortable 156116 Nike Free 5.0 V4 Men Red Black White Shoes,Nike Cortez Boys Preschool Hyper Pink/White Running Shoes V59224,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Adidas X 15.3 Fg/Ag Boys Grade School Black/Shock Pink/Solar Gold Soccer Shoes V26313,Authentic 155547 Nike Free Run Men Black Green Shoes,Adidas 2015 Crazylight Boost Primeknit Mens Solar Yellow/Black Basketball Shoes V77844,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Adidas J Wall Mens White/Silver/Clear Grey Basketball Shoes V94302,Cheap 223788 Nike Hyperdunk Kobe Bryant Olympic Men White Blue Shoes,Adidas Vigor Tr 6 Mens Collegiate Royal/Solar Yellow/Onix Running Shoes V46083,."

Womens Shoes Sam Edelman Dora Chartreuse Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Nike Air Max Excellerate 4 Mens Black/White/Pure Platinum/Reflective Silver/Print Running Shoes V355,Authentic 148994 Nike Lebron 11 Men Red Black Grey Shoes,Nike Air Zoom Odyssey Mens Black/Wolf Grey/Dark Grey/White Running Shoes V37480,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

Womens Boots UGG Dree Black Indonesian trainees harvest cabbages at a farm in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Mr Lacy Flat Laces CP357,Buy 198466 Nike Shox Nz Men Grey Pink Shoes,Creative Recreation Junior Cesario Low XVI Trainer CP605,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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Womens Boots UGG Classic Short Blue Jay A Vietnamese worker checks autoparts at a Shigeru plant in Gunma Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobyashi)

The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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Womens Slippers UGG Dreams Black Sequin Skulls Internet company Rakuten, based in Tokyo, has been actively recruiting foreign talent. (Photo by Yasunori Okamura)

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Womens Shoes ALDO Aoisa Bone,Cheap 238988 Adidas Climacool Ride Women Fluorescent Yellow Shoes,Womens Shoes Anne Klein Cailley Taupe Reptile,, via a loyalty point system.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

Womens Shoes Vaneli Dina Taupe Ecco Suede Marliezl Abud, left, and a fellow Philippine worker talk to an elderly woman at a care center in Tokyo. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Womens Sandals Clarks Amelia Joyce Navy Floral,Inexpensive 148429 New Balance WW928 Women White Shoes,Womens Shoes Clarks Evianna Crown Brown,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

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But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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