Asics Patriot 8 VIII Triple Black Mens Running Shoes Sneakers T619N-9990 Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

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"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Nike Kobe VII(6) Shoes in 20286,Nike Air Max 95 Ultra Jacquard Shoes Mens Black Dark Grey White Silver N20657,Nike Magista Opus AG Hyper Punch Soccer boots green black,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Nike Zoom Hyperchaos X Basketball Shoes For Men in 89273,Nike Cortez Basic Leather Shoes Mens White Grey Metallic Silver White N94675,Nike Zoom Kobe Dream Season I Sneakers For Men in 73246,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Online Nike Air Max 1 Men's Running Shoe Black/White-Yellow,Nike Hurley Phantom Free Flip Flops Mens Red N77694,To Buy Air Jordan 1 I Mens Shoes Online Sale Black White Red,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Stylish Nike Dri-Fit Miler Tank Fresh Mint/Electro Green/Reflective Silver For Women Outlet Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Wavy Midnight Navy in 17551,Nike Killshot Vintage Vintage Shoes Mens Navy Blue Light Brown White N69899,Nike Air Force 1 CMFT Lux Black/Black Trainers for MAN,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Nike Archive ,Nike Zoom Speed Trainer 2 Training Shoes White Wolf Grey Black Bright Crimson For Men,Nike Benassi JDI Leather Black/Black Slippers for MAN,.

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Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Adidas Yeezy Wave Runner 700 sale Boost Kanye West Size 9 B75571 Exclusive London Confirmed,Timberland Tilton Mid Leather Waterproof Hiking Boots Brown For Men,Discount Authentic 304775-101 Mens Nike Air Jordan 7 Shoes Cardinals White/Black-Cardinal Red-Bronze,."

Asics 8 Green Purple Mens Shoes Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Discount Authentic 414571-003 Mens Nike Air Jordan 13 Retro Black/Infrared,Timberland Earthkeepers Adventure Cupsole Oxford Shoes Natural Canvas For Men,Discount Authentic Kids Nike Air Jordan 8 Airforce 1 Shoes White/Dark Grey,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

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Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

Nike Shoes Turbo Men Rosso Indonesian trainees harvest cabbages at a farm in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Discount Authentic Mens Nike Air Max BW Shoes Black/Silver/White,Nike SB Lunar Oneshot Shoes Cool Grey Bleached Turquoise Ivory Black For Men,Discount Authentic Mens Nike Air Max Jordan 23 Shoes White/Black/Grey/Red,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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Casual Openwork Weaving Double-Deck Knit Beanie - Black A Vietnamese worker checks autoparts at a Shigeru plant in Gunma Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobyashi)

The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

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Sequined Cloth Square Toe Pumps - Silver - 38 Foreign students attend a job fair in Tokyo. Japanese companies, including e-commerce player Rakuten, are increasingly looking for international talent. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

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Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Nike Flex Supreme TR 4,2015 Newest Designed Nike Air Huarache Utility Run Shoes Camouflage Yellow/Black Blue Mens Sneaker Online Cheap,Adidas Fa Wales Home 2016 Goalkeeper Socks Yellow - Accessories Socks,, via a loyalty point system.

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Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

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One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Adidas Running Bostonnova Glide 7 Shoes Running White Ftw Running White Infrared For Women,2016 Air Jordan 13 Collectors Edition Retro Dawn Justice Mens Sneakers Black Blue Basketball Shoes Hot Sale,Nike Free TR 5 Training Shoes Black Pink Pow Fireberry Metallic Silver For Women,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

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But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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