Adidas Adizero Adios Boost 2 Mens Black/White/Solar Red Running Shoes V36422 Farruq Fahlevi, left, and Muhamad Irvan Gustian, both from Indonesia, work on a farm harvesting cabbages in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)
Cover Story

Famous for its resistance to immigration, Japan opens its doors

Number of foreign workers doubles in five years as nation faces labor crisis

adidas Originals ZX Flux Trainer CP3973,Women's Nike Lunarelement Black/Laser Crimson/Dark Grey/White UK#N5-9610adidas Originals ZX Flux Trainer CP4033,. Along with a group of Japanese colleagues, they will spend the day moving heavy wooden pilings and pouring concrete for the foundation of a seven-story condominium block. 

It is demanding work, adidas Originals Stan Smith Trainer CP4157,Calvin Klein Cotton Stretch 3 Pack Boxer Short CP401Asics Gel-Lyte III Trainer CP4208,.

"I've chosen the construction industry because the work involves lots of communication and helps improve my Japanese," Hoang said, in fluent Japanese. He eventually wants to work as a translator in Japan, and hopes that his fiancee will be able to join him there one day.

His employer, Converse Chuck Taylor All Star High Trainer CP4262,Creative Recreation Junior Sawtell Hooded Top CP417Creative Recreation Kaplan Trainer CP4346,, said trainees like Hoang are indispensable for his company of 32. "Foreign trainees learn faster than Japanese," Maeda said. "They are more serious, more hardworking, and take fewer days off. They are keen to learn and work hard for money. Cruyff Technico Trainer CP4408,Creative Recreation Junior Ridge Puffer Parka Jacket CP421Gourmet The 35 Lite BK Trainer CP4461,. Like other industries in a rapidly aging Japan, the construction business is desperate for labor. Lacoste Graduate Tweed Trainer CP4516,Converse Infant Chuck Taylor All Star Ox Leather Mono Trainer CP483Nike Air Safari Trainer CP4589,. As baby boomers retire, the labor shortage -- in construction and in the wider economy -- is bound to become more acute.

Womens Boots UGG Damien Lodge Leather Vietnamese trainee Dang Ngoc Hoang works at a building site in Tokyo. With Japan's construction workforce rapidly aging, new sources of labor are needed. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The demand for construction workers is intensifying before the 2020 Olympics, Nike Roshe Run Flyknit Trainer CP4664,Creative Recreation Infant Kaplan Holographic Suede Trainer CP505Nike Lunar Force 1 '14 'Splatter Pack' Trainer CP4740,, the program has boomed in recent years -- and is one reason that the number of foreign workers in Japan has nearly quadrupled over the last decade.

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Without fanfare, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has steadily loosened Japan's once tightly controlled visa policy, resulting in an almost doubling of the number of foreign workers in Japan to 1.28 million over the last five years. In its latest move, Abe's government is expected to create a new class of  five-year work permits for unskilled workers in hopes of attracting more than 500,000 new overseas workers by 2025. The new guidelines, to be finalized in June, will ease language requirements for foreign workers in construction, Vans Old Skool Premium Leather Trainer CP5113,Toms Infant Classic Slip On Espadrille CP543Toms Womens Canvas Classic Espadrille CP5200,.

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Immigration remains a politically charged issue in Japan, Unisex Shoes adidas Adizero Prime LTD Mid Grey/Silver/White,Kickers Infant Core Kick High Boot CP526Womens Shoes adidas Barricade Team 4 White/Frozen Yellow/Midnight Indigo,. "My government has no intention of adopting a so-called immigration policy," Abe said in February.

Yet the total number of foreign residents in Japan has grown 20% in the last three years, reaching 2.6 million in 2017, or 2% of the total population. In Tokyo, one in eight residents who came of age this year were foreigners.

"Anyone wandering around Japan, from Hokkaido to Tokyo to Okinawa, knows that there is growing diversity in schools and the workplace," said Jeff Kingston, a professor at Temple University Japan. "Womens Shoes adidas Originals Adria Lo W Joy Purple/White/White,Havaianas Infant Brasil Logo Flip Flop CP518Womens Shoes adidas Running Kanadia TR 7 Black/Black/Flash Orange,."

Womens Sandals UGG Vessa Black Suede Foreign workers have become a part of everyday life in Japan, yet public debate on immigration remains limited. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

While foreign workers are now part of everyday life in Japan -- making ready-to-eat foods in convenience stores, growing fruits and vegetables on farms and sorting packages for delivery companies -- public debate has been limited.Womens Boots Aerosoles Enamel Grey Combo,Havaianas Infant Brasil Logo Flip Flop CP521Womens Sandals Aerosoles Light N Sweet Nude,. As a result, Abe's position -- despite its apparent contradictions -- has faced no strong pushback from the public or politicians yet.

Many Japanese look at the deep divisions in the West over immigration and conclude that a more open policy should be avoided. Yet the steady relaxation of migration rules has not led to the social fissures seen elsewhere.

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With Japan facing its tightest labor market in decades, the business community would like Abe to go further. The unemployment rate stands at 2.5%, the lowest level in 25 years. There are now 1.59 jobs for every job seeker, the highest ratio since 1974.

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Given Japan's demographics -- it is the world's oldest advanced economy -- the labor shortage is only going to intensify. The nation's working-age population, defined as those aged between 15 and 64, is expected to decrease more than 40% to 45 million over the next 50 years. By contrast, those aged 75 or older, dubbed the "super-elderly," are projected to make up more than a quarter of the population.

Cabbages and car parts

Womens Shoes ALDO Zaitz Bone,Nike Junior Air Max 90 Mesh Trainer CP633Womens Shoes Anne Klein AK Sport - Cadwyn8 Black Perf Nubuck,, and 60% are 65 or older. Most of their children have left for the city in search of better-paying office work.

Womens Shoes Anne Klein AK7Don't Stop Natural,Nike Junior Free Run 2 Trainer CP646Womens Shoes Anne Klein AKQualified Black Multi Fabric,, the government's trainee program has allowed them to hold on to their livelihoods.

Among them is Kota Hirohara, 56, who raises cabbages on his small farm. On a recent May day, two Indonesian trainees were harvesting Hirohara's cabbages by hand with large nakiri, or vegetable knives. Hirohara says his farm is not big enough to need an expensive cabbage harvesting machine.

Womens Sandals Vaneli Miriam Black Indonesian trainees harvest cabbages at a farm in Ibaraki Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

The two men, Muhamad Irvan Gustian and Farruq Fahlevi, both 21, can pick as many as 4,000 cabbages during their eight-hour workday. They also weed the fields, Womens Shoes Badgley Mischka Pearla White Satin,Nike Junior Air Force 1 Trainer CP651Womens Sandals C Label Lingo-2 Blue,, where the temperature can reach 40 C in summer.

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Womens Shoes Vaneli Skinny Silver Met Nappa A Vietnamese worker checks autoparts at a Shigeru plant in Gunma Prefecture. (Photo by Ken Kobyashi)

The workers at Shigeru make instrument panels used in the Outback, Impreza and other models. The company hires Japanese part-timers in response to changes in demand, but Masayoshi Tabata, general manager, says foreign trainees are more dependable. "Part-timers quit when they find better-paying jobs. Trainees stay for three years."

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Trainees are discouraged from going back to their country before finishing the three-year term or from having a child, and they cannot bring their spouse on the visa.

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International pressure and media reports led to a law change in November 2017, allowing only certified organizations to participate in the trainee program. Criminal penalties were introduced for mistreatment of workers while a new government agency has been given a legal mandate to conduct random inspections. A whistleblower system has also been created that allows cases of abuse to be reported via email, a telephone hotline or a dedicated website. Most trainees have smartphones with them and have Wi-Fi access in their dormitories.

Fast-track system for tech workers

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Womens Shoes Vaneli Armon Tmoro Nappa/Brown Cheppa Print/Tmoro Elastic Internet company Rakuten, based in Tokyo, has been actively recruiting foreign talent. (Photo by Yasunori Okamura)

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"It is impossible for Japanese to create a very competitive technology-based company unless we globalize internally,Womens Sandals COACH Judy Black/Brown/Bronze,Jack & Jones Stan Marv SC560 Jean CP887Womens Shoes COACH Erica Gunmetal Metallic,, CEO of Japanese e-commerce company Rakuten, at an in-house seminar last year.

At Rakuten's Japanese headquarters in a Tokyo suburb, a quarter of its roughly 6,000 employees are foreigners. The company hires about 400 engineers every year, of which 70% are non-Japanese, mainly Indians and Chinese.

Rakuten's push for global talent began in 2009, Womens Shoes COACH Ivy Khaki/Petal,adidas Originals Long Line Hooded Top CP944Womens Sandals Cole Haan Arden Wedge Black Nubuck,.

Womens Shoes Vaneli Baldy Jordan Blue Perf Suede/Match Stones Foreign students attend a job fair in Tokyo. Japanese companies, including e-commerce player Rakuten, are increasingly looking for international talent. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

Mikitani's revelation came during a lunch session with Indian engineers. Womens Sandals Cole Haan Murley Wedge Soft Gold,Antony Morato Full Zip New Tape Hooded Top CP973Womens Shoes Cole Haan Cary Venetian Grey Jade Nubuck,.

Amit Agrawal, a 35-year-old engineer from India, is one of those who were hired by Rakuten.

"Most Japanese companies don't accept non-Japanese speakers. Rakuten is one of the companies that accept non-Japanese-speaking people," said Agrawal, who works in a massive open room that is almost entirely filled by foreign workers. Womens Shoes Cole Haan Tali Grand Bow Wedge 65 Zinfandel,Antony Morato Two-Tone Hooded Top CP970Unisex Shoes Converse Weapon Mid Black/Purple,, via a loyalty point system.

"Rakuten is basically an e-commerce company, but we are moving into other businesses also. I wanted to work in the latest technologies," Womens Sandals ECCO Touch 45 Wedge Sandal Black/Black,Criminal Damage Reflective Splat Hooded Top CP1026Womens Shoes ECCO Cayla Slip On Amber/Amber,.

Family ties

But IT workers are an exception. Most others, even skilled workers, face significant hurdles to settling in Japan.

Men's We The North Crew Sweater Marliezl Abud, left, and a fellow Philippine worker talk to an elderly woman at a care center in Tokyo. (Photo by Ken Kobayashi)

One of the biggest difficulties has to do with restrictions on allowing family members to accompany workers -- a move designed to prevent permanent immigration. Though they are starting to loosen for a small number of the most skilled workers, such restrictions may limit Japan's allure as a destination for people with sought-after training. 

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Abud was able to come to Japan through this program, but the hurdles were high. Only those with a four-year-college degree and a Philippine qualification as a caregiver were accepted. Womens Sandals Naturalizer Every White Leather,Nike SB Icon Full Zip Hooded Top CP1118Womens Shoes Naturalizer Carly Oxford Brown Leather,.  

She sends most of her salary to her parents and sisters back in the Philippines. Her younger sister has a daughter who is going on to private school, and Abud's earnings contribute to her niece's education.

Abud felt a crushing homesickness at first. But after she had passed the local exam, Womens Shoes New Balance W775V1 Silver/Purple,Under Armour Stom Fleece Overhead Hooded Top CP1174Womens Shoes New Balance WXC700v3 Spike Blue/Purple,. She likes the shopping, too.

But she and her husband see possible obstacles ahead for their lives in Japan. Her visa allows her husband to work only up to 28 hours a week, which could pose problems if they start a family.

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